With a complex assemblage of largely intact ecosystems that support the earth's greatest diversity of life, the Amazon basin is a focal point of international scientific interest. And, as development and colonization schemes transform the landscape in increasing measure, scientists from around the world are directing attention to questions of regional and global significance. Some of these qustions are: What are the fluxes of greenhouse gases across the atmospheric interface of ecosystems? How mush carbon is stored in the biomass and soils of the basin? How are elements from the land transferred to the basin's surface waters? What is the sum of elements transferred from land to ocean, and what is its marine "fate"? This book of original chapters by experts in chemical and biological oceanography, tropical agronomy and biology, and the atmospheric sciences will address these and other important questions, with the aim of synthesizing the current knowledge of biochemical processes operating within and between the various ecosystems in the Amazon basin.
Call Number: online and print - print copy at UNI Stacks S600.7.C54 C66 2004
Publication Date: 2004
Dealing with climate change is generally considered to be one of the greatest challenges for the coming decades. Changes in precipitation are likely to have a major impact on the hydrological cycle and subsequently on the environment and food production. However, until now clear guidance on how to respond to this challenge, particularly at the river basin level, has been lacking. This book has been developed from the ADAPT project, focusing on the development of regional adaptation strategies for water, food and the environment in river basins across the world. A generic methodology is presented and applied to seven case studies in contrasting geographical areas of the world: Mekong (SE Asia), Rhine (Western Europe), Sacramento (USA), Syr Darya (Central Asia), Volta (Ghana), Walawe (Sri Lanka) and Zayandeh (Iran).
Recent studies of past climate and streamflow conditions have broadened understanding of long-term water availability in the Colorado River, revealing many periods when streamflow was lower than at any time in the past 100 years of recorded flows. That information, along with two important trends--a rapid increase in urban populations in the West and significant climate warming in the region--will require that water managers prepare for possible reductions in water supplies that cannot be fully averted through traditional means. Colorado River Basin Water Management assesses existing scientific information, including temperature and streamflow records, tree-ring based reconstructions, and climate model projections, and how it relates to Colorado River water supplies and demands, water management, and drought preparedness. The book concludes that successful adjustments to new conditions will entail strong and sustained cooperation among the seven Colorado River basin states and recommends conducting a comprehensive basinwide study of urban water practices that can be used to help improve planning for future droughts and water shortages.
Because of its location, volume, speed, and propensity for severe flooding, the Rhone, France's most powerful river, has long influenced the economy, politics, and transportation networks of Europe. Humans have tried to control the Rhone for over two thousand years, but large-scale development did not occur until the twentieth century. The Rhone valley has undergone especially dramatic changes since World War II. Hydroelectric plants, nuclear reactors, and industrialized agriculture radically altered the river, as they simultaneously fueled both the physical and symbolic reconstruction of France. In Confluence, Sara B. Pritchard traces the Rhone's remaking since 1945. She interweaves this story with an analysis of how state officials, technical elites, and citizens connected the environment and technology to political identities and state-building. In the process, Pritchard illuminates the relationship between nature and nation in France. Pritchardâe(tm)s innovative integration of science and technology studies, environmental history, and the political history of modern France makes a powerful case for envirotechnical analysis: an approach that highlights the material and rhetorical links between ecological and technological systems. Her groundbreaking book demonstrates the importance of environmental management and technological development to culture and politics in the twentieth century. As Pritchard shows, reconstructing the RhÃ´ne remade France itself.
The Danube river is one of the world's greatest international freshwater resources. It stretches halfway across Europe and its water is shared by 17 nations. With so many countries dependent on one limited resource, conflicts are bound to arise. This book focuses on the dispute between Hungary and the Slovak Republic over the Gabèíkovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project. It examines the history and progress of the case from the International Court of Justice to the subsequent agreement to joint monitoring and assessment of the environmental implications. The authors use a multidisciplinary approach covering natural resources management, geography, international relations, political science, and international law.Environmental monitoring is essential to resolving transboundary water conflicts. The authors discuss the extensive monitoring programs implemented by the two countries, attempts to link various causes and effects of the project, and how monitoring can help enhance public participation for sustainable solutions. Based on original documents and research, and including numerous maps, figures, and appendices, this book is a useful reference on the applications of environmental monitoring and data sharing for improving the management of international waters.
The most comprehensive analysis on China's most developed and largest trading and economic zone, The Yangtze River & Delta. A 630-page overview of the industrial structure, economic development patterns and local government policies of the Yangtze & Delta. Unique insights into issues of labor transfer, spillover effects of indigenous technology innovations, foreign investment-led growth and income distribution models in the Delta.
Dirty, Sacred Rivers explores South Asia's increasingly urgent water crisis, taking readers on a journey through North India, Nepal and Bangladesh, from the Himalaya to the Bay of Bengal. The book shows how rivers, traditionally revered by the people of the Indian subcontinent, have in recent decades deteriorated dramatically due to economic progress and gross mismanagement. Dams and ill-advised embankments strangle the Ganges and its sacred tributaries. Rivers have become sewage channels for a burgeoning population. To tell the story of this enormous river basin, environmental journalist Cheryl Colopy treks to high mountain glaciers with hydrologists; bumps around the rough embankments of India's poorest state in a jeep with social workers; and takes a boat excursion through the Sundarbans, the mangrove forests at the end of the Ganges watershed. She lingers in key places and hot spots in the debate over water: the megacity Delhi, a paradigm of water mismanagement; Bihar, India's poorest, most crime-ridden state, thanks largely to the blunders of engineers who tried to tame powerful Himalayan rivers with embankments but instead created annual floods; and Kathmandu, the home of one of the most elegant and ancient traditional water systems on the subcontinent, now the site of a water-development boondoggle.
This succinct book gives an intimate view of the day-to-day functioning of a remarkable river that has figured prominently in history and culture--the Hudson, a main artery connecting New York, America, and the world. Writing for a wide audience, David Strayer distills the large body of scientific information about the river into a non-technical overview of its ecology. Strayer describes the geography and geology of the Hudson and its basin, the properties of water and its movements in the river, water chemistry, and the river's plants and animals. He then takes a more detailed look at the Hudson's ecosystems and each of its major habitats. Strayer also discusses important management challenges facing the river today, including pollution, habitat destruction, overfishing, invasive species, and ecological restoration.
This book was undertaken at a pivotal time in the region. The weak summer monsoon in 2009 created drought conditions throughout Pakistan. This followed an already tenuous situation for many rural households faced with high fuel and fertilizer costs and the impacts of rising global food prices. Then catastrophic monsoon flooding in 2010 affected over 20 million people, devastating their housing, infrastructure, and crops. Damages from this single flood event were estimated at US$10 billion, half of which were losses in the agriculture sector. Notwithstanding the debate as to whether these observed extremes are evidence of climate change, an investigation is needed regarding the extent to which the country is resilient to these shocks. It is thus timely, if not critical, to focus on climate risks for water, agriculture, and food security in the Indus Basin in Pakistan. This study uses several different modeling environments including hydrologic models, an agro-economic optimization model of the irrigation system, and a computable general equilibrium model of the Pakistan economy. The models used here are among the best mathematical representations available of the physical and economic responses to these exogenous future climate risks.
Sharing water resources among basin countries is a major topic of discussion for those responsible for managing international water systems. Planned water transfer schemes can result in environmental and security disputes.Southern Africa is one of the world's most critical regions in terms of water management, with a large disparity in availability of water between the relatively wet northern part of the region and the drier south. The first transboundary transfer of water occurred in the Southern African region (WHEN?), between Lesotho and South Africa. Mikiyasu Nakayama was involved in the establishment of a basin-wide management scheme for the Zambesi river system. Political complexities led to many difficulties in the development of the action plan. In the region's new political setting, all countries can now participate in discussions on an equal footing. This change may be interpreted as an opportunity for greater participation, or as the dangerous empowerment of self interest. International Waters in Southern Africa examines both the risks and opportunities for water management in this new political environment.Contributors include Piet Heyns, Carl Bruch, Meredith A. Giordano, Aaron T. Wolf, Kazimierz A. Salewicz, Anthony Turton, Peter Ashton, Munyaradzi Chenje, Abdullahi Elmi Mohamed, Richard Meissner, Zafar Adeel, and Thomas Ballatore.
Flows of the Columbia River, although modified substantially during the twentieth century, still vary considerably between seasons and between years. Lowest flows tend to occur during summer months when demand for irrigation water is at its highest and when water temperatures are greatest. These periods of low flows, high demand, and high temperature are critical periods for juvenile salmon migrating downstream through the Columbia River hydropower system. Although impacts on salmon of any individual water withdrawal may be small, the cumulative effects of numerous withdrawals will affect Columbia River flows and would pose increased risks to salmon survival. The body of scientific knowledge explaining salmon migratory behavior and physiology is substantial, but imperfect, and decision makers should acknowledge this and be willing to take action in the face of uncertainties. In order to provide a more comprehensive water permitting process, the State of Washington, Canada, other basin states, and tribal groups should establish a basin-wide forum to consider future water withdrawal application permits. If the State of Washington issues additional permits for water withdrawals from the Columbia River, those permits should contain provisions that allow withdrawals to be curtailed during critical high-demand periods.
American engineers have done astounding things to bend the Mississippi River to their will: forcing one of its tributaries to flow uphill, transforming over a thousand miles of roiling currents into a placid staircase of water, and wresting the lower half of the river apart from its floodplain. American law has aided and abetted these feats. But despite our best efforts, so-called "natural disasters" continue to strike the Mississippi basin, as raging floodwaters decimate waterfront communities and abandoned towns literally crumble into the Gulf of Mexico. In some places, only the tombstones remain, leaning at odd angles as the underlying soil erodes away. Mississippi River Tragedies reveals that it is seductively deceptive -- but horribly misleading -- to call such catastrophes "natural." Authors Christine A. Klein and Sandra B. Zellmer present a sympathetic account of the human dreams, pride, and foibles that got us to this point, weaving together engaging historical narratives and accessible law stories drawn from actual courtroom dramas. The authors deftly uncover the larger story of how the law reflects and even amplifies our ambivalent attitude toward nature--simultaneously revering wild rivers and places for what they are, while working feverishly to change them into something else. Despite their sobering revelations, the authors' final message is one of hope. Although the acknowledgement of human responsibility for unnatural disasters can lead to blame, guilt, and liability, it can also prod us to confront the consequences of our actions, leading to a liberating sense of possibility and to the knowledge necessary to avoid future disasters.
Call Number: online and in print at UNI Stacks QH104.5.M56 M57 2002
Publication Date: 2002
The Missouri River Ecosystem: Exploring the Prospects for Recovery resulted from a study conducted at the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The nation's longest river, the Missouri River and its floodplain ecosystem experienced substantial environmental and hydrologic changes during the twentieth century. The context of Missouri River dam and reservoir system management is marked by sharp differences between stakeholders regarding the river's proper management regime. The management agencies have been challenged to determine the appropriate balance between these competing interests. This Water Science and Technology Board report reviews the ecological state of the river and floodplain ecosystem, scientific research of the ecosystem, and the prospects for implementing an adaptive management approach, all with a view toward helping move beyond ongoing scientific and other differences. The report notes that continued ecological degradation of the ecosystem is certain unless some portion of pre-settlement river flows and processes were restored. The report also includes recommendations to enhance scientific knowledge through carefully planned and monitored river management actions and the enactment of a Missouri River Protection and Recovery Act.
Historically, the flow of sediment in the Missouri River has been as important as the flow of water for a variety of river functions. The sediment has helped form a dynamic network of islands, sandbars, and floodplains, and provided habitats for native species. Further downstream, sediment transported by the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers has helped build and sustain the coastal wetlands of the Mississippi River delta. The construction of dams and river bank control structures on the Missouri River and its tributaries, however, has markedly reduced the volume of sediment transported by the river. These projects have had several ecological impacts, most notably on some native fish and bird species that depended on habitats and landforms created by sediment flow. Missouri River Planning describes the historic role of sediment in the Missouri River, evaluates current habitat restoration strategies, and discusses possible sediment management alternatives. The book finds that a better understanding of the processes of sediment transport, erosion, and deposition in the Missouri River will be useful in furthering river management objectives, such as protection of endangered species and development of water quality standards.
The Niger River Basin, home to 100 million people, is a vital yet complex asset for West and Central Africa. It is the continent's third largest river basin, traversing nine countries--Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger, and Nigeria. The River embodies both these nations' livelihoods and their geopolitics. It is not simply water but rather an origin of identity, a route for migration and commerce, a source of conflict, and a catalyst for cooperation.Cooperation among decision-makers and users is crucial to address the threats to water resources. The Niger Basin Authority is mandated to foster this cooperation and sharing of resources. The Basin riparians have renewed their commitment to address sustainable management and development of the Basin's resources through an improved framework and a Shared Vision process.'The Niger River Basin' provides an overview of the water resources potential, discussing the river basin's geology, hydrology, climate, and water quality and use, and providing a vision and approaches for sustainable development of water resources. It serves as a tool for transborder cooperative environmental and water resource management by capturing the full spectrum of the Niger ecosystem's values and benefits and supporting the integration of science and decision-making. A comprehensive overview of the Niger River Basin water resources and their sustainability, this title will be of interest to decision-makers, stakeholders, and the technical/scientific community.
The supply and management of fresh water for the world's billions of inhabitants is likely to be one of the most daunting challenges of the 21st century. For countries that share river basins with others, questions of how best to use and protect precious water resources always become entangled in complex political, legal, environmental, and economic considerations. This text focuses on the issues that face all international river basins by examining in detail the Nile Basin and the ten countries that lay claim to its waters. John Waterbury applies collective action theory and international relations theory to the challenges of the ten Nile nations. Confronting issues ranging from food security and famine prevention to political stability, these countries have yet to arrive at a comprehensive understanding of how to manage the Nile's resources. Waterbury proposes a series of steps leading to the formulation of environmentally sound policies and regulations by individual states, the establishment of accords among groups of states, and the critical participation of third-party sources of funding like the World Bank. He concludes that if there is to be a solution to the dilemmas of the Nile Basin countries, it must be based upon contractual understandings, brokered by third-party funders, and based on the national interests of each basin state.
Call Number: online and available in print at UNI Stacks GF540 .C56 2002
Publication Date: 2002
The River Rhine is Europe's most important commercial waterway, channeling the flow of trade among Switzerland, France, Germany, and the Netherlands. In this innovative study, Mark Cioc focuses on the river from the moment when the Congress of Vienna established a multinational commission charged with making the river more efficient for purposes of trade and commerce in 1815. He examines the engineering and administrative decisions of the next century and a half that resulted in rapid industrial growth as well as profound environmental degradation, and highlights the partially successful restoration efforts undertaken from the 1970s to the present. The Rhine is a classic example of a "multipurpose" river - used simultaneously for transportation, for industry and agriculture, for urban drinking and sanitation needs, for hydroelectric production, and for recreation. It thus invites comparison with similarly over-burdened rivers such as the Mississippi, Hudson, Colorado, and Columbia. The Rhine's environmental problems are, however, even greater than those of other rivers because it is so densely populated (50 million people live along its borders), so highly industrialized (10% of global chemical production), and so short (775 miles in length). Two centuries of nonstop hydraulic tinkering have resulted in a Rhine with a sleek and slender profile. In their quest for a perfect canal-like river, engineers have modified it more than any other large river in the world. As a consequence, between 1815 and 1975, the river lost most of its natural floodplain, riverside vegetation, migratory fish, and biodiversity. Recent efforts to restore that biodiversity, though heartening, can have only limited success because so many of the structural changes to the river are irreversible.The Rhine: An Eco-Biography, 1815-2000 makes clear just how central the river has been to all aspects of European political, economic, and environmental life for the past two hundred years. Mark Cioc is professor of history at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He is the author of Pax Atomica: The Nuclear Defense Debate in West Germany during the Adenauer Era.
Rivers constitute a major tourism resource, providing spectacular settings, recreation facilities, a means of transport, a sense of heritage and adventure, and links with the environment and natural world. River tourism accounts for a significant proportion of the world's tourism consumption, with activities such as Nile cruises and rafting holidays making it an economically important area of tourism demanding in-depth analysis. This book explores river tourism from a range of perspectives including uses, heritage, management, environmental concerns, and marketing
Voices for the Watershed is a unique look at the singular and ecologically inter-connected region of the Great Lakes-St Lawrence watershed, including the headwater and upland regions. With contributions from experts from the United States, Quebec, and Ontario, this book offers an accessible introduction to the issues affecting the quality of our most essential and precious of natural resources - clean, fresh water - from headwater regions downstream to the Great lakes, the St Lawrence river, and ultimately the watershed's outflow to the sea. With thoughtful words and evocative photography, Voices for the Watershed promotes understanding and examines ecological problems, describing positive environmental actions and projects as well as ongoing concerns over the effects of pollution on wildlife and human health. The underlying themes throughout are that the drainage basins and ecosystems are under siege - from reckless land use decisions, soil erosion, acid rain, and massive habitat destruction - but that the situation is not hopeless. The authors feel strongly that education about the environmental threats - in the classroom and public forums - is essential to effecting positive change, and that conservation actions by citizen groups and individuals can be a driving force in effecting substantial reforms regarding environmental legislation and practices. Voices for the Watershed is an eye-opening look at not only the problems but possible solutions to help protect and preserve this resilient natural resource on which so many depend.
1. Toward a Provisional Understanding --- 2. Egypt: Gift of the Nile --- 3. The Sudan: A Hydrographic Bridge? --- 4. Ethiopia: Land of the “Blue Gold” --- 5. The Middle Nile “Squatters” Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda --- 6. The Uppermost Riparian States: Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of Congo --- 7. Thinking about the Future
Considers the issue of managing multiple resources of the Upper Mississippi River and Illinois Waterway, with regard to several NRC reports on Corps of Engineers planning procedures. This report recommends a retrospective review of the experience with a federal inter-agency Principals Group, convened to provide guidance to the Corps study.
The Yellow River basin, located in the semi-arid and arid climate zones in northern China is confronted with serious problems of water deficit as well as water pollution. Due to increasing population levels, rising living standards, increasing pressure of expanding irrigation areas and developing industries in the basin, efficient water resource allocation has become a pressing issue here. On the surface it appears to be domestic, but in reality the problem is one of international proportions because it may impact other countries through trade. Development in the basin is restricted by acute water shortage, salinity damage and pollution. There are many scenarios for The allocation of water resources. One extreme is industry-oriented and The other is agriculture-oriented. The allocation between upstream and downstream is also another issue. In order to understand the current state of water resources in the basin and to provide a way of thinking about the issues, this book systematically explains the methods of modeling, mechanism of water circulation on each element and several technologies for water saving. it also introduces cutting-edge research results of the five-year project "improving the sustainability in utilizing and controlling water in the Yellow River basin" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST).
Flowing through the heart of the North China Plain--home to 200 million people--the Yellow River sustains one of China's core regions. Yet this vital water supply has become highly vulnerable in recent decades, with potentially serious repercussions for China's economic, social, and political stability. The Yellow River is an investigative expedition to the source of China's contemporary water crisis, mapping the confluence of forces that have shaped the predicament that the world's most populous nation now faces in managing its water reserves. Chinese governments have long struggled to maintain ecological stability along the Yellow River, undertaking ambitious programs of canal and dike construction to mitigate the effects of recurrent droughts and floods. But particularly during the Maoist years the North China Plain was radically re-engineered to utilize every drop of water for irrigation and hydroelectric generation. As David A. Pietz shows, Maoist water management from 1949 to 1976 cast a long shadow over the reform period, beginning in 1978. Rapid urban growth, industrial expansion, and agricultural intensification over the past three decades of China's economic boom have been realized on a water resource base that was acutely compromised, with effects that have been more difficult and costly to overcome with each passing decade. Chronicling this complex legacy, The Yellow River provides important insight into how water challenges will affect China's course as a twenty-first-century global power.
River Morphology synthesizes the contributions made by geologists, geomorphologists, geographers, hydraulic engineers and hydrologists and presents a coherent text which takes a balanced view about formation on alluvial rivers and their hydraulics, and analysis of their response to natural and man-made disturbances. The text covers discussion about history of fluvial hydraulics and geomorphology, drainage basin characteristics, soil erosion, fluvial morphology, principles of sediment transport and hydraulics of alluvial and gravel-bed rivers, river bed and channel changes, palaeo-hydraulics, analytical and numerical modeling of alluvial stream transients, morphology of some Indian rivers, rivers and environment, and data needs for morphological studies. Inclusion of two chapters on modeling offers valuable tools for quantitative analysis of a number of problems in alluvial stream transients.