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This guide covers tools and resources important for students studying accounting.

Financial and Operating Ratios

Financial and operating ratios, such as gross profits as a percent of sales, are derived from company financial statements. Ratios are calculated for categories such as liquidity, asset management, debt management, profitability, and market value.

They are used to study changes in a company's operations over time. Ratios for a particular company also are compared with those for the industry as a whole or with those for a specific competitor or group of competitors; the purpose is to identify and then analyze deviations from industry averages.

Some ratio sources arrange data by the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) or the Standandard Industrial Classification System (SIC); the following U.S. government sources provide details on these two systems

Ratio Analysis Books

Financial Ratios - Industries

Some of the sources listed under Financial Ratios - Companies also contain ratios for industries.

Financial Ratios - Companies