Skip to main content
Campus Life | Calendar | eLearning | Email | MyUNIverse
Ask Us! | Contact Us | About Us | Services | Research | Find Articles & Books

SCI ED 6500 - Research Methods in Science Education - Del Carlo/Gray: Home

Rod Library access

Rod Library subscription resources such as journals & e-books may require a CatID & passphrase for access. For library assistance for distance learners, see the Distance Learners research guide or contact us using the options listed on this course research guide.

Article access problems? REPORT HERE (or email Anne Marie). Please be as detailed as possible, including whether you were on- or off-campus, what browser(s) you tried, what path you attempted to reach the article, and any error messages.

PICOT research question format

The PICOT acronym can help you format your research question.


P = Population (or Problem)

I = Intervention

C = Comparison

O = Outcome

T = Time (optional)

Example: Among 9th-12th-graders, how does participation in a science news literacy module affect science students’ ability to evaluate scientific arguments in non-scholarly sources?  (suggests a pre- and post-test methodology)

Reference Management Software

Note that most Rod Library subscription databases provide citations in APA, MLA, and Chicago styles. Regardless of what software you use to create/manage citations, be sure to check their work for accuracy. **Many citation managers & examples online have not yet transitioned to APA 7th edition.**

Evidence-Based Science Education

Millar, R., Leach, J., Osborne, J., & Ratcliffe, M. (2008). Research and practice in science education: A response to Traianou and Hammersley. Oxford Review of Education, 34(4), 483-488.

Roth, W. (2011). Comment: What constitutes evidence in science education research?  Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(10), 1225-1232.

Traianou, A., & Hammersley, M. (2008). Making science education evidence-based? Reflections on a teaching and learning research programme (TLRP) studyOxford Review of Education, 34(4), 461-481.

Library session slides

Find Journals & Journal-Level Information

Find Articles (Primary Literature)

  • IMPORTANT TIP regarding article links: When sharing articles you find in subscription databases, be sure to use permalinks (also known as permanent links or persistent URLs). This is usually NOT the link in your browser's address bar.
  • To find a complete article ("full-text") when you have a citation, try one of these options:

Interlibrary Loan

Your Librarian

Anne Marie Gruber's picture
Anne Marie Gruber
Office hours:
By Zoom video conference or phone appointment.
My times don't work? Book another librarian

Get Research Help

Other Guides