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SCI ED 6500 - Research Methods in Science Education - Del Carlo/Gray

Library session slides

PICOT research question format

The PICOT acronym can help you format your research question.


P = Population (or Problem)

I = Intervention

C = Comparison

O = Outcome

T = Time (optional)

Example: Among 9th-12th-graders, how does participation in a science news literacy module affect science students’ ability to evaluate scientific arguments in non-scholarly sources?  (suggests a pre- and post-test methodology)

Citing Sources

Note that most Rod Library subscription databases provide citations in APA, MLA, and Chicago styles. Many examples are available, as well as software that can create and manage citations for you (citation managers). When software creates citations, be sure to check for accuracy.

Evidence-Based Science Education

Millar, R., Leach, J., Osborne, J., & Ratcliffe, M. (2008). Research and practice in science education: A response to Traianou and Hammersley. Oxford Review of Education, 34(4), 483-488.

Roth, W. (2011). Comment: What constitutes evidence in science education research?  Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(10), 1225-1232.

Traianou, A., & Hammersley, M. (2008). Making science education evidence-based? Reflections on a teaching and learning research programme (TLRP) studyOxford Review of Education, 34(4), 461-481.

Rod Library access

Rod Library subscription resources such as journals & e-books may require a CatID & passphrase for access. For library assistance for distance learners, see the Distance Learners research guide or contact us using the options listed on this course research guide.

Article access problems? REPORT HERE (or email Anne Marie at Please be as detailed as possible, including whether you were on- or off-campus, what browser(s) you tried, what path you attempted to reach the article, and any error messages.