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Basic Search Tips

Person typing on a laptopUnlike Google, library databases can't understand an entire sentence. So you'll need to break your topic down into the most important ideas - the KEYWORDS.

Example Topic: How has climate change impacted Apis mellifera populations in the Midwest?

The specifics of your topic will matter when selecting sources, but for searching you only need the most essential components.

Keywords: "climate change", Apis mellifera, Midwest

How has climate change impacted Apis mellifera populations in the Midwest?

Most words have synonyms that mean the same, or very similar, things. For each keyword in your topic, try to come up with at least one synonym. Not all keywords will have synonyms, but many do!


KeywordApis mellifera
    Synonym: honeybee


Keep an Eye Out

Sometimes scholars use terms that you might not be familiar with, or which might mean something very specific within the discipline. While searching, look for unfamiliar terms or words that show up a lot. Try searching for those and see if you find more relevant sources.

Onesearch with green arrow pointing to the refine my results sectionMost library databases have search tools built in. Try some of these:

  • Subject: Think of subjects as official hashtags. Use them to find sources about that subject.
  • Date Range: Limit your search to sources published between specific years.
  • Peer Reviewed: Limit your search to scholarly journal articles.
  • Full Text: Make sure all of the results are available to read in full.

Look on the left and right of your search results, or for an "advanced search" page to find these tools - and more!

Person standing in front of a board with academic documents

You can evaluate any source using the 5 W's:

  • Who: ...wrote it? Are they an expert?
  • What: the purpose of this resource?
  • Where: ...was this information published? ...does the information come from?
  • When: ...was this published or last updated?
  • Why: this resource useful? this resource better than other ones?

Advanced Search Tips

Venn diagram with the phrase Apis mellifera on in the left circle, the Boolean operator AND in the middle, and the phrase "climate change" in the right circle

Use the operator AND to find only sources that mention both keywords.

Apis mellifera AND "climate change"

This search will bring back fewer results than searching either keyword on its own.

Venn diagram with the phrase "climate change" on in the left circle, the Boolean operator OR in the middle, and the phrase "habitat loss" in the right circle

Use the OR operator to expand your search with additional keywords.

"climate change" OR "habitat loss"

This will find sources that include either word, so you'll see more results than by searching for just one keyword.

Search for “Apis mellifera” AND “climate change”

Use the “QUOTES” strategy to search for several words in a phrase.

"climate change"

This will bring back results that only use that exact phrase.